Diffraction pattern

Raw Materials

Silicon ingots

CZ Silicon ingots

Crystal Scientific sources raw materials from all over the world always looking for the best quality from our suppliers.

The most commonly used product is single crystal silicon produced by the Czochralski process (CZ). In this process a seed crystal is used to pull a single crystal out of molten polysilicon. The process is precisely controlled for temperature, rate of pulling and speed of rotation in order to extract large single crystal ingots up to 2m in length. Higher grade single crystal silicon is made by refining the silicon in the Float Zone process (FZ) in which dopants and other impurities are rejected by the regrowing silicon crystal.

X-ray mirrors are usually made from CZ silicon, other mirror materials include Zerodur (glass) and Ultra Low Expansion fused silica (ULE).

Diffraction crystals are always made from the higher grade FZ silicon or germanium, available in a variety of orientations. Other materials such as indium antimonide, gallium arsenide and indium phosphide can be specified on request.

Silicon offcuts

Silicon offcuts

After a crystal has been cut from an ingot the rest of the ingot is retained with the crystal planes marked so that they can be used for future jobs.

We have extensive stocks of silicon for diffraction crystals. We also maintain a significant investment in a stock of silicon ingots, allowing us to offer short lead times for large x-ray mirrors.